1754 Map of Wachovia
The Moravian records document that Andreas Hoger, Peter Boehler, and Hermanus Loesch traveled from Moravian settlements in Pennsylvania to North Carolina to begin the first Moravian survey of Wachovia September 10, 1754. Hoger was a surveyor, architect, and builder sent from Europe by the Moravian leadership to survey Wachovia and to complete other North American projects. The tract had already been initially surveyed by NC surveyor William Churton from the Granville land office in 1752-53, but Hoger and Boehler wwere to determine how the tract would be divided up.
This map is thought to be the work map which resulted in a finished map (Acc. P-339). Michael and Martha Hartley researched features on the finished map (P-3-99) and determined that it was likely drawn in 1754 because of an inscription indicating “Hier is the mill to be built.” The mill was started in January of 1755. On November 18, 1754, the Moravian diary records, “A map was made by Hoger, who also made a copy to be retained in Wachovia.”
According to the article written by Michael (Mo) Hartley, “Having just studied the Wachovia map with the deer cartouche (P-339), the Hartleys immediately realized that this map was another version of that map and probably also drawn by Andreas Hoger. The fragile map closely agrees with the first map, with the notable exception that lenders map showed a list of dates indicating when each section of Wachovia was surveyed. For example, one of the dates reads “1754, 26 Sept.”, which was in fact in the period that Boehler and Hoger were conducting the survey and mapping project. This map, which appears to be a work map for the survey process by Boehler and Hoger, fully confirmed that the “deer” map was from the same period and was also by Hoger.”
“An ornate cartouche on the [final] map [P-339], showing a rifle and a surveyor’s rod lying across a shot deer, provided further evidence. The Moravian Diaries were searched for entries mentioning any deer being killed during the time of the survey, and astonishingly the Diary noted, ‘During this period we have killed no game except a bear and a deer shot by Br. Herman Loesch on Oct. 29th.’ This is the same Hermanus Loesch who accompanied Hoger and Boehler to Wachovia and who assisted with the survey because of his knowledge of the land.
Loesch was no stranger to the wilderness of North Carolina. He was in the search party for land in 1752 when the tract was chosen and then came in the original group of Single Brothers to settle the tract in 1753. During his first months in Wachovia, he proved to be a competent hunter and had killed a number of deer for their food. He was called back to Pennsylvania and then returned to North Carolina with Boehler and Hoger on their 1754 surveying trip to Wachovia.
The evidence of the final map [P-339] tells us that Hoger was a witness to Loesch’s successful hunt of Oct. 29, sketching the deer with Loesch’s firearm and with the surveyor’s rod, which cleverly provides the scale for the map. The presence of these two tools indicates that surveying work was being done, with the help of Loesch, who also carried his flintlock.”
(Written by Mo Hartley, Director of Archaeology at Old Salem)
**A copy of Mo’s article can be found in the accession files for P-339 and 4878.
Condition: Poor condition; flaking throughout; due to the map being folded repeatedly, the creases have torn or created holes – cross shaped. Fading,
yellowing and staining throughout piece.
**A copy of Mo’s article can be found in the file
Petree. Frank and Carol Holcomb Purchase Fund.